|Abstract Number: ||690 - 5|
|Author Name: ||Alice Fulmer - Water Research Foundation|
|Session Title: ||Water Quality and Environmental Issues|
|Event Type: ||Symposia|
|Event Title: ||An Overview of Hexavalent Chromium Methods and Research|
|Presider Name:||Lauren Weinrich|
|Date: ||Monday, March 18, 2013|
|Start Time: ||03:50 PM (Slot #5)|
|Chromium, especially hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), is an inorganic contaminant that has recently received increased attention from the drinking water community and the public at large. The USEPA currently has a maximum contaminant level (MCL) for total chromium and is conducting a toxicological review of health effects from Cr(VI) ingestion to determine if a new MCL should be set specifically for Cr(VI). The State of California issued its own nonenforceable Public Health Goal (PHG) for Cr(VI) in July 2011 and plans to issue a draft MCL for Cr(VI) in July 2013. In preparing for these regulatory determinations, many gaps were identified with regard to chromium analysis, occurrence, treatment, and treatment cost. Therefore, the Water Research Foundation recently funded several research projects related to Cr(VI) in an effort to fill these knowledge gaps. The proposed presentation would highlight the results and preliminary findings of these projects, which include, among others:|
•Trace Level Cr(VI) Occurrence and Analysis: Reviewing and Testing the State of the Science (#4404) –Findings indicate that the borate-carbonate buffer recommended by CDPH is not effective at preserving chromium speciation in some waters.
•Total and Cr(VI) Chromium Occurrence Analysis (#4414) –Existing total chromium and Cr(VI) data is limited by the minimum reporting levels of the various methods used, making predictions of systems impacted by potential regulations subject to a high degree of uncertainty below 10 [micro]g/L.
•National Implications of Community-Level Cost for a Theoretical Cr(VI) SDWA Standard (#4432) –Preliminary national cost estimates for compliance with a theoretical Cr(VI) MCL of 10 [micro]g/L required many assumptions but range from $1-5 billion.
•Impact of Water Quality on Cr(VI) Chromium Removal Efficiency and Cost (#4450) –This project is investigating the impact of pH, total organic carbon, chromium concentration, sulfate, and other parameters on Cr(VI) removal.