Course Information
Course Title: Measurement and Interpretation of pH in Aqueous, Partially Aqueous and Nonaqueous Solutions and Mobile Phases; Buffer Preparation for Aqueous and Partially Aqueous Solutions
Categories: 1 - Liquid Chromatography
2 - Capillary Electrophoresis
3 - Chemometrics
4 - Electrochemistry
5 - Supercritical Fluid
Instructor(s): Bill Tindall Course Number: 30
Affiliation: Analytical Science Solutions
Course Date: 03/14/2012 - Wednesday Course Length: 1 Day Course
Start Time: 08:30 AM End Time: 05:00 PM
Fee: $455 ($655 after 2/13/12) Textbook Fee:

Course Description
In most cases pH measurements can be made in partially aqueous and even nonaqueous solvents with the same practical utility as pH measurements made in water. However, the literature is full of examples where such measurements were improperly made or improperly interpreted which led to failed experiments and flawed conclusions. The purpose of this course is to provide the student with a fundamental understanding of interpreting pH measurements made in water and solvents so that reliable decisions can be made for how to calibrate, measure, and interpret these pH measurements, how to report them and how to control pH with properly prepared buffers.

Target Audience
The elementary concepts of pH typically taught are inadequate to properly make and interpret pH measurements in many practical situations. Anyone making pH measurements or controlling pH in a solvent other than a dilute aqueous solution will find the greater understanding of pH and buffers gained from this class useful.

Course Outline
The class begins a fundamental review of aqueous pH concepts and the historical development of pH standards.  A discussion of why it took 50 years for NIST to develop pH standards and 100 years for the world to agree on standards will reveal limitations of the pH measurement process that are important to measurement and interpretation in water, and even more so in organic solvents. The details of the glass(pH) electrode and its response are explored to gain a better understanding of how to use this device in organic solvents and how to interpret the results.  This class explains what happens when an aqueous buffer is diluted with an organic solvent, and why.  Some simple guidelines will enable prediction of buffer behavior in partially aqueous solvents as well as how to  best prepare precise buffers. When preparing a buffer you will learn when it is appropriate, or even essential, to make the pH measurement in the mixed solvent rather than in the aqueous component before mixing.  The final part of the class will explore the specific details of acid-base chemistry in nonaqueous solvents such as alcohols, acetonitrile and acetic acid.   Many examples from the literature as well as my experience will be provided to illustrate proper, and improper, pH measurement and interpretation as well as buffer preparation.  A bibliography will be provided that contains sources of additional information on pH calibration , buffers and pKa's of buffer components in partially aqueous solvents.

Course Instructor's Biography
William Tindall currently consults and teaches for Analytical Science Solutions, LLC in the areas of analytical and polymer chemistry, corrosion and acid/base chemistry in aqueous and nonaqueous solutions. Prior employment was with Kodak and Eastman Chemical Company where William did analytical research in the areas of atomic spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, chromatography, and polymer chemistry. William has 30 publications and patents in these fields. William received his BS in chemistry from Clarkson College, Potsdam, NY and his PhD in Analytical Chemistry from the University of Minnesota.