Short Course Listings
Short Course

Course Information
Course Title: Selection and Preparation of Buffers for Aqueous and Partially Aqueous Solvents, for Example LC Mobile Phases
Categories: 1 - Liquid Chromatography
2 - Capillary Electrophoresis
3 - Chiral Separations
4 - Electrochemistry
5 - Sample Preparation
6 - Thin Layer Chromatography
Instructor(s): William Tindall Course Number: 35
Affiliation: Analytical Science Solutions,LLC
Course Date: 03/20/2013 - Wednesday Course Length: 1/2 Day Course
Start Time: 08:30 AM End Time: 12:30 PM
Fee: $260 ($360 after 2/18/13) Textbook Fee:

Course Description
It is common practice to prepare buffers by adjusting the pH of a weak acid or base to a target pH and hope for the best. And hope it will be when an organic solvent is added to the recipe. The objective of this class is to provide a fundamental understanding of how to select and prepare buffers to control pH in aqueous and partially aqueous solvents such as LC mobile phases. Strategies to select the best buffer, ways to calculate the effectiveness of a buffer, preparation procedures to deliver the highest precision with least effort, and guidelines for predicting the effect of dilution with an organic solvent will be covered.

Target Audience
The elementary concepts of buffers typically taught are inadequate to properly select and use buffers in many practical situations. Anyone using buffers, and especially anyone buffering partially aqueous solvents, will find the greater understanding of pH and buffers gained from this class useful.

Course Outline
The class begins with a broad definition of buffering and an introduction to buffer systems in addition to those made from weak acids and bases. Next, a means of calculating the effectiveness of a buffer will be shown along with examples of how to practically use these calculations. Strategies for selecting, preparing and reporting buffer systems will be discussed. Judging from mistakes made in the literature, buffering partially aqueous solvents, such as LC mobile phases, is a topic not well understood. This class explains what happens when an aqueous buffer is diluted with an organic solvent, and why. Some simple guidelines will enable prediction of buffer behavior in partially aqueous solvents as well as how to best prepare these buffers. When preparing a buffer you will learn when it is appropriate, or even essential, to make the pH measurement in the mixed solvent rather than in the aqueous component before mixing.

Course Instructor's Biography
William Tindall currently consults and teaches for Analytical Science Solutions, LLC in the areas of analytical and polymer chemistry, corrosion and acid/base chemistry in aqueous and nonaqueous solutions. Prior employment was with Kodak and Eastman Chemical Company where William did analytical research in the areas of atomic spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, chromatography, and polymer chemistry. William has 30 publications and patents in these fields. William received his BS in chemistry from Clarkson College, Potsdam, NY and his PhD in Analytical Chemistry from the University of Minnesota.